OK, I guess that's a fairly meaningless heading that needs some explanation. This section is an attempt to include some information on aircraft that have been reputed to have taken part in the Spanish Civil War, but which, as far as I can ascertain, didn't. It's quite likely that several of the aircraft mentioned above should be in this section. I have also included a few types that nearly took part, and have tried to give an explanation for the inclusion of each aircraft in this section below each type.
|Make and model|
|Aero A-330||15 were ordered by the Republicans from Czechoslovakia, but not delivered. The picture to the left shows an Aero 230. The Aero 330 was similar but fitted with a 650/700-hp Praga ESV engine.|
|5 were bought or ordered by the Republicans in England, but delivery was prevented by the non-intervention treaty.|
There are several long-standing reports of the Amiot 143 being used in Spain, but these seem to be erroneous. Six aircraft were indeed ordered at the start of the civil war, but Amiot then refused to sell to the Republicans.
|ANF Mureaux 115||There are various reports of ANF Les Mureaux 115 or 117 reconnaissance aircraft participating in the Spanish Civil War. These originated in propaganda by the right wing French press, and there is no supporting evidence.|
|ANF Mureaux 117||There are various reports of ANF Les Mureaux 115 or 117 reconnaissance aircraft participating in the Spanish Civil War. These originated in propaganda by the right wing French press, and there is no supporting evidence.|
|Arado Ar 96||There are reports of a couple of Ar 96s seeing service in Spain, but this seems rather unlikely given that the type only entered service in 1939, and that the Condor Legion would have little use for an advanced trainer in Spain.|
|18 were bought or ordered by the Republicans in England, but delivery was prevented by the non-intervention treaty.|
20 were ordered by the Republicans from Czechoslovakia, but the train delivering them to Spain was stopped on its way through Poland by the Polish authorities.
|2 were bought or ordered by the Republicans in England, but delivery was prevented by the non-intervention treaty.|
|A Pacemaker was among planes bought in the USA on behalf of the Republicans, and shipped to Mexico for transport to Spain. However, it probably remained in Mexico, although it is possible that it was shipped to Spain in December 1937. The profile to the left appeared in a Russian publication about Spanish Civil War aircraft, but it is unclear where this originated.|
|Bellanca 28-90||A militarised version of the 28-70, fitted with an 900 HP twin wasp senior radial engine and fairly heavy armament, produced specifically following a request from the Republican government. Some 40 aircraft were produced, but none were delivered to Spain following a USA embargo on their sale.|
There have been many reports of Spad 510's being sent to Spain, with large numbers (15-27) of aircraft being supposedly involved. However, the evidence seems to be that these reports originated through propaganda and incidents involving the Blériot-Spads 51 and 91 (see aircraft that participated page) being exagerated.
|Boeing 100 / P-12||There are reports of a couple of Boeing model 100's (the civil/export version of the Boeing P-12) being use in Spain, although there is no supporting evidence - This may have resulted from misidentification of, e.g., The Avia BH-33.|
At least 3 Boeing 247s were among planes bought in the USA on behalf of the Republicans, and shipped to Mexico for transport to Spain. However, they remained in Mexico, and after the war were sold to raise money for Republican refugees.
A Buhl Air Sedan was among planes bought in the USA on behalf of the Republicans, and shipped to Mexico for transport to Spain. However, it apparently remained in Mexico during the war.
|Caproni CA 101||The picture to the left, showing a Ca 101 in (rather odd) nationalist markings appeared in Purnell's Bombers, 1919-1939: I have no idea why...|
|Curtiss Hawk II|
When the Russian Polikarpov I-15 (see the aircraft that participated page) first appeared in Spain, it was a largely unknown aircraft in the west, and was misidentified as an American "Curtiss" fighter. This name was used by the Nationalists for this type for much of the war, and reports even appeared in the American press describing how American fighters were proving so effective in Spain. Pre-war visits by Curtiss Hawk II fighters to Spain may have been the origin of the original misidentifications.
At least 6 Curtis Condors were among planes bought in the USA on behalf of the Republicans, and shipped to Mexico for transport to Spain. However, they remained in Mexico, and after the war were sold to raise money for Republican refugees, eventually ending up in China.
The single Consolidated 23 was among planes bought in the USA on behalf of the Republicans, and shipped to Mexico for transport to Spain. However, it probably remained in Mexico, although it is possible that it was shipped to Spain in December 1937. The picture shows the Thomas-Morse YO-41, from which the model 23 was modified.
|Appearance of this aircraft in lists of Spanish Civil War aircraft appears to originate from misidentification of the Consolidated 20-A Fleetster.|
|One list I've seen of Spanish Civil War aircraft includes mention of a Catalina. This could have been due to a gross misidentification of pictures of the Fairchild 91 (which does sort of look like a Catalina in profile, albeit about half the size!), or confusion with the Catalina tht was empounded in Spain during WWII.|
|Dewoitine D 9||One aircraft was bought by the Republicans through a Belgian arms dealer, but never delivered.|
|Dewoitine D 500||Ordered by the Republicans in 1936, but none were delivered. They were assigned the code letters CE.|
|Fairey Ferocé /|
|It has often been stated that one or two of the prototype Fairey Ferocé (also called Fantôme) fighters ended up in Spain. This rumour seems to have originated with the shipment of the planes to Russia, which was often a clandestine route to Spain. The rumour may have been strengthened by misidentification of the Hawker Spanish Fury (see above), which differs from other versions of the fury in having a cantilever undercarriage with a large air intake between the undercarriage legs, both features shared by the Ferocé.|
|Fiat CR 42||There have been reports of a couple of CR 42's being sent to Spain during the closing stages of the war, and even being assigned the Nationalist code number 4 but there is, as far as I know, no supporting evidence for this.|
|Focke-Wulf FW 58|
|10 Weihes have been reported as being ordered by Spain, but were never delivered.|
The Fokker G-1 was offered for sale to the Republicans by the Fokker company, with Pratt & Wittney Wasp Jr. SB4-G engines in place of the domestic Bristol Mercury engines. Delivery was prevented by the non-intervention treaty, and the completed aircraft were eventually taken over by the Dutch air force.
|Bought or ordered by the Republicans in England, but delivery prevented by the non-intervention treaty.|
|Heinkel He 114||A few examples were used by the Spanish airforce during WWII|
|Hispano 42||The Hispano 42 trainer was produced after the civil war, but utilized parts, particularly the undercarriages, from the production line set up to manufacture the Fokker D. XXI.|
|Junkers Ju 88a||Although in development during the Spanish Civil War, no tests of the Ju 88 seem to have been carried out in Spain, although some a models were delivered during WWII.|
|Koolhoven FK 52|
The FK-52 fighter was apparently produced to a Spanish Republican order, but none were delivered before the end of the Civil War.
|LACAB GR.8||The single prototype GR.8 was bought by the Republicans, but remained in Belgium throughout the war.|
|Levasseur P.L.101||Reports of Levasseur PL101s in Spain probably originated from the misidentification of Breguet XIX's. The picture to the left shows the prototype PL6, which should be similar in appearance to the PL 101.|
|Bought or ordered by the Republicans in England, but delivery prevented by the non-intervention treaty.|
The Spanish government had made an order for several Martin 139 bombers (the export version of the Martin B-10) just before the outbreak of the civil war. In the end this order was not honoured, but when the SB-2 Katiuska appeared over Spain, it was initially misidentified as the "Martin bomber", a name that stuck. The presence of Martin bombers in Spain is still cited by several authors, and some (clearly retouched) photographs have been published, probably for propaganda purposes.
|There are reports of at least one Sparrowhawk in Spain, but all 5 of the aircraft that were built can be accounted for elsewhere during the conflict, so these reports probably originate from misidentification of other Miles aircraft, Gil-Pazó GP-1s or Caudron Aiglons.|
There has long been controversy over whether the Chaika served in Spain during the last few months of the war. A page discussing this particular controversy in depth can be found at the following URL:
|Potez Po 63||Jesus Salas Larrazabal (1974) mentions this aircraft as being used by the Republicans, but it is not clear what his source is. However, some Po 63-II's were used by Spain during WWII.|
|PWS 26||There seems to have been some confusion between the PWS 26 and the PWS 16, which may possibly have served in Spain (see the aircraft that may have participated page)|
|PZL P.11n||The Spanish government apparently ordered a number of PZL P.11 fighters in the mid 1930's, a special version (P.11n) being designed for Spain. Delivery was, however, prevented by the non-intervention treaty.|
|PZL P.23 Karas||Several books have reproduced a photograph of damaged P.23s which are supposed to have been serving with the Republicans, 'though it is unclear where this story originated, as the aircraft do not show republican markings, but do show obscured Polish markings.|
|PZL P.24||The third prototype P.24 is rumoured to have been captured by the Italians in Ethiopia (having originally been flown by Turkey), and then transferred to Spain for testing, but there is no corroborative evidence. Thanks to Jakub Marszalkiewicz for the profile of this aircraft.|
|PZL P.37 Los|
The PZL P-37 Los was offered for sale to the Republicans before the type was even known to exist outside Poland. In the end the deal, like so many others, fell through. A brief but fascinating account of this is given in Gerald Howson in Arms for Spain.
|Renard R-32||The single prototype R-32 was sold to the Republicans, but remained in Belgium.|
|Several examples of this tri-motor passenger plane served with Iberia in the late 1920s and early 1930s, and it has been speculated that they were used during the civil war. However, records show that they were all scrapped before 1936.|
|Romano R-131||The Romano R-131 was a continuing development of the R-83 and R-92 (see the aircraft that participated page), but none were completed before the end of the war. The profile shows the R-130 design. The R-131 would have been similar, but with a radial engine. Thanks to Richard Barthel for this image.|
|Seversky P-35||Plans were made by the Republicans to build the P-35 in Spain, and the type was assigned the code number CS, but in the end the plan was cancelled.|
|Seversky 2PA||The 2PA-BX prototype of this 2-seat version of the P-35 is supposed by some authors to have ended up in Spain, although this is probably a confusion with the SEV3. It is possible that 2PAs, like P-35s, were also scheduled for production in Spain.|
|Bought or ordered by the Republicans in England, but delivery was prevented by the non-intervention treaty.|
|Spartan Zeus||Several examples of this multi-purpose military 'plane are supposed to have been bought by Republican Spain, but were lost at sea when the ship transporting them (presumably from Mexico, as this is where the majority of Zeuses were sold) sank. I'm not sure what the evidence for this shipment is, however, and I'd be interested in hearing from anyone who knows more about it.|
|Vultee V-11||Several examples of this military derivative of the V-1 transport are supposed to have been bought by Republican Spain, but lost at sea when the ship transporting them (and the Spartan Zeuses) sank. I'm not sure what the evidence for this shipment is, however, and I'd be interested in hearing from anyone who knows more about it.|